A University of Lincoln academic has published a report on the morality of electronic dog collars.
Professor Daniel Mills, from the university's school of life sciences, has published a new report into the morality surrounding the collars, known as electronic pulse training aids (EPTAs).
In the report, he concluded that those who use the collars and those opposed to them both have concern about what is best for their pet.
He said: "Sometimes it's portrayed that people who use EPTAs are cruel and ignorant, but I don't think that's the case.
"People are looking for a solution to a potentially serious problem which impacts on their quality of life.
"For example, a dog that worries sheep can be devastating to a farmer's business, but just keeping a dog on a lead the whole time when you live in the countryside is not good for the pet, so that is why a solution needs to be found."
Professor Mills also said that if the Government continues to support the legality of EPTAs, additional safeguards against their misuse should be included, such as a voltage limitation feature and a licensing of practitioners together with a procedure for documenting each use.