Angry residents and business owners say four months of roadworks in the city will "kill the community".
Around £250,000 is to be spent on widening Boultham Park Road, a pedestrian crossing, new street lighting and resurfacing. Work starts on January 14 and will last 15 weeks.
During that time the right turn from Dixon Street into Boultham Park Road will be closed to motorists.
The county council says there will be significant improvement to the junction when the work is complete.
But business owners and residents say the area will grind to a halt as a result of the work.
Sue Rose, who manages Brian Rose Footwear store in Boultham Park Road, says her business will suffer.
"It is the same old story," she said. "It will dramatically affect trade. The council has carried out so much work on this road. We feel small businesses, like ourselves, are never taken into consideration.
"It has happened at the worst possible time because the economy is so bad.
"We have customers from all over the county, but as soon as they hear of roadworks and delays, they stay away."
Gordon Dickinson lives in Bristol Drive, just off Boultham Park Road.
He told the Echo: "None of this makes any sense to me.
"This is going to make the traffic congestion horrendous.
"It is already impossible to move during rush hour and it will have a detrimental effect on the traffic system around the city. It was not long ago this road was ripped up and resurfaced so why is more work being carried out so soon?
"There are kids who are dropped off here after school. They will be late back and it's not safe for them because of the sheer volume of cars. I can't imagine there will be many people getting to and from work on time."
Dominic Greatorex, of Boultham Park Road, said: "This will bring nearly four months of pain to the area.
"It is going to be a killer for the community and this isn't the first time work has had to be done on this part of the road. Traffic is already a huge issue and people are getting fed up of it. This will cause so much aggravation for so many people."
But, Alan Aistrup, head of highways at Lincolnshire County Council said: "Local residents will receive detailed information towards the end of the month regarding the temporary traffic management arrangements.
"The works to this junction should provide a significant improvement on completion.
"While works are under way, some disruption will be inevitable.
"We ask people to be patient and understanding as the long term benefits will be tangible."